Since the late 1980s, Calvià Town Council has developed different policies aimed to minimise the impact of tourism on the natural environment. These policies led to the creation of the Tourism Excellence Plan (1990), which included building clearance to regain open space, attempts to offset the seasonal nature of tourism and training and employment. It outlined three key climate targets: environmental recovery of coastal areas; promotion, improvement of quality and professionalism in sustainable tourism model; and cooperation, social cohesion and citizen participation.
In 1996, the municipality of Calvià joined ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, and signed the Aalborg Charter. A year later it implemented the Local Agenda 21 for Calvià, which aimed to develop a new strategy for local development based on sustainable tourism and protecting the natural environment. In 2015, Calvià endorsed the Basque Declaration, which outlines new pathways for European Cities and Towns to create productive, sustainable and resilient cities for a liveable and inclusive Europe.
The municipality has been a part of the Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy since 2011, a consortium of local governments who voluntarily commit to meeting and exceeding the EU climate and energy targets. Calvià submitted its first Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) for 2013-2020 in 2012. In November 2020, the municipality approved the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan ( SECAP) for 2021-2030.
Calvia’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) of Calvià: 2013-2020 committed to reducing CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to 2007. This SEAP was envisioned to be a flexible tool for long-term planning to develop actions and projects that reduced emissions in various sectors, like economic, residential, transport, waste production, etc. Some of the actions included in the plan were improving energy efficiency of heating and cooling systems, increasing the share of renewables in the city’s energy mix, and making the tourist sector more sustainable. In November 2020, the municipality approved the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP), which outlines the updated objectives and strategies until 2030. The key targets are to reduce CO2 emissions by more than 40% and increase the share of renewable energy sources by 27%. To reach these goals, the municipality plans to improve energy efficiency in public buildings, reduce energy consumption, promote renewables and more sustainable transport, and raise awareness among citizens, in addition to other actions.
2. TARTU, ESTONIA
Tartu City signed the Aalborg Charter in 1995 and adopted Tartu Agenda 21 three years later, a document reflecting the principles and aspirations for sustainable urban development. Tartu became a member of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability in 1997. The municipality is also a member of the Lighting Urban Community International ( LUCI ) network (2012) and the Covenant of Mayors (2014).
Tartu submitted its first Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) for 2015-2020 in 2015. In April 2021, the municipality approved the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan 2020-2030 (SECAP) including updated goals and strategies until 2030. Locally, Tartu is currently developing the new City Masterplan 2040+, which includes ambitious goals for sustainable development in the city. The strategy is anticipated to be accepted in September 2021. Tartu’s public transport system became 100% carbon neutral in 2021.
Tartu’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP): 2015-2020 included three strategic objectives: to reduce CO2 emissions, to consume less energy, and to increase the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix from 38% in 2010 to 45% in 2020. The main objective of the plan is to achieve carbon neutrality at latest by 2050.
In April 2021 the municipality approved the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) “Tartu Energia 2030+”, which includes updated objectives and strategies to reach them by 2030. The city is committed to reach climate neutrality by 2050, reduce CO2 emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 2010, and to use 100% renewable energy in the municipal sector, for example, in city-owned buildings, street lighting, and public transport. Tartu also wants to increase both renewable energy production and consumption, make greater efforts toward climate adaptation, as well as to deepen cooperation with European cities to reach climate neutrality and participate in various European initiatives, including the European Commission’s Mission for “100 Climate neutral cities by 2030 – for and by citizens”. The SECAP was developed together with citizens through in-person and online consultations.
3. VITORIA-GASTEIZ, SPAIN
Vitoria-Gasteiz signed the Aalborg Charter in 1994. Four years later, it was the first Spanish municipality to approve the Local Agenda 21, which marked a milestone in the development of sustainability policies and measures in the city. This structural plan for the municipality introduced sustainability criteria and indicators for all areas of municipal management. It also integrated environmental, economic and social policies that aimed to improve the quality of life in several areas, like health, environment, urban planning, services, mobility, etc. Vitoria-Gasteiz is also a signatory of the Aalborg Commitments (2004), the Basque Declaration (2018) and the Mannheim Message (2020).
In 2008, Vitoria-Gasteiz joined the Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, a network of local governments voluntarily committed to achieving and exceeding the EU climate and energy targets, and became a member of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability in 2010.
In 2010, the municipality submitted its first Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) for 2010-2020 “Plan Against Climate Change 2010-2020”. They are currently developing their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) outlining the updated objectives and strategies to reach climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest.
Vitoria-Gasteiz’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) for 2010-2020 “Plan Against Climate Change 2010-2020” committed to reduce city emissions by 25,7% and GHG emissions of municipal services and equipment at least by 56,1% by 2020 compared to 2006. The strategy outlined the main action areas in the municipality until 2020, which included renovating and retrofitting old buildings, improving energy efficiency, installing renewable energy systems, promoting the use of hybrid and electric vehicles, renovating public lighting, installing LED technology, using biomass, heat pumps, micro-cogeneration systems, and district heating networks, amongst others.
In 2020, Vitoria-Gasteiz ratified a commitment to the Covenant of Mayors to increase its emissions reduction at least by 40% by 2030 through energy savings and efficiency improvements, using renewable energy sources, and increasing resilience by adapting to the impacts of climate change. The municipality is currently exploring an even more ambitious goal of reducing GHG emissions by 60% by 2030, in line with the European Commission’s Green Deal ambition to dramatically reduce emissions by 2030 and achieve climate neutrality by 2050. Vitoria-Gasteiz wants to set more ambitious climate targets for the next decade. These commitments will be included in the city’s in-progress Sustainable Energy and Action Plan (SECAP), which will outline the updated objectives and strategies for the city to reach climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest.